Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

ABSTRACT

Bilayered scaffold and cellular strategies are currently applied to solve the challenging problem of osteochondral defects. In this study, several formulations of Gellan gum were developed to fabricate different scaffolds possessing a cartilage-like layer and a bone-like layer. The bone-like layers were obtained by adding low acyl Gellan gum (LAGG) at 2 wt% and different amounts of hydroxyapatite powders (HAp) (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%). The cartilage-like layers were obtained by preparing LAGG formulation at 2 wt% and formulations of LAGG at 2 wt% and high acyl Gellan gum (HAGG) at 0.75 wt% at a ratio of 75:25 (v%). The viscoelastic measurements were performed using a TRITEC8000B DMA to characterize the mechanical behaviour of the different bilayered scaffolds. The effect of the incorporation of different amount of HAp within the bone-like layer on the mechanical properties of the scaffolds was also investigated. Degradation and water uptake studies were performed by soaking the scaffolds in a phosphate buffered saline solution (pH 7.4) up to 30 days. The bilayered scaffolds were investigated using a stereo microscope to evaluate the interface between both layers. The cytotoxicity of the bilayered scaffolds was investigated in vitro using a L929 cell line. In vitro studies regarding adhesion, encapsulation and viability of human chondrocytes (cartilage-like layer) and human osteoblasts (bone-like layer) cultured in the bilayered scaffolds were also carried by performing SEM analysis and LIVE/DEAD assays.